Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest A new map was released U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) detailing croplands worldwide in the highest resolution yet, helping to ensure global food and water security in a sustainable way.The map establishes that there are 1.87 billion hectares of croplands in the world, which is 15 to 20% — or 250 to 350 million hectares (Mha) — higher than former assessments. The change is due to more detailed understanding of large areas that were never mapped before or were inaccurately mapped as non-croplands.Earlier studies showed either China or the United States as having the highest net cropland area, but this study shows that India ranks first, with 179.8 Mha (9.6% of the global net cropland area). Second is the United States with 167.8 Mha (8.9%), China with 165.2 Mha (8.8%) and Russia with 155.8 Mha (8.3%). Statistics of every country in the world can be viewed in an interactive map.South Asia and Europe can be considered agricultural capitals of the world due to the percentage of croplands of the total geographic area. Croplands make up more than 80% of Moldova, San Marino and Hungary; between 70 and 80% of Denmark, Ukraine, Ireland and Bangladesh; and 60 to 70% of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Gaza Strip, Czech Republic, Italy and India. For comparison, the United States and China each have 18% croplands.The study was led by the USGS and is part of the Global Food Security-Support Analysis Data @ 30-m (GFSAD30) Project. The map is built primarily from Landsat satellite imagery with 30-meter resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution of any global agricultural dataset.“The map clearly shows individual farm fields, big or small, at any location in the world,” said Prasad Thenkabail, USGS research geographer and Principal Investigator for the GFSAD30 Project Team. “Given the high resolution of 30 meters and 0.09 hectares per pixel, a big advantage is the ability to see croplands in any country and sub-national regions, including states, provinces, districts, counties and villages.”With the global population nearing the 7.6 billion mark and expected to reach 10 billion by 2050, it is of increasing importance to understand and monitor the state of agriculture across the world in great detail. This new research is useful to international development organizations, farmers, decision makers, scientists and national security professionals.“This map is a baseline and starting point for higher level assessments, such as identifying which crops are present and where, when they grow, their productivity, if lands are left fallow and whether the water source is irrigated or rain fed,” Thenkabail said. “Comparisons can be made between the present and past years as well as between one farm and another. It is invaluable to know the precise location of croplands and their dynamics to lead to informed and productive farm management.”Not only does this map and accompanying data have significant food security implications, but it is also critical as a baseline for assessing water security. Nearly 80% of all human water use across the world goes towards producing food, and this research provides insight on “crop per drop,” which is an assessment of the amount of crops produced per unit of water.“The project is a major undertaking for many reasons,” Thenkabail said. “One major challenge was obtaining cloud-free images in regions such as the tropics and during rainy seasons. That took multiple years in some areas. This project required the use of satellite-acquired big-data analytics using machine learning algorithms on a cloud computing platform such as the Google Earth Engine.”Another important aspect of this project was the rigorous validation of the map, leading to an overall accuracy of 92%. Validation was performed by an independent team for 72 zones across the world.The USGS led this project and played an especially valuable role in providing Landsat imagery. The USGS acquires, processes, archives and distributes freely to anyone in the world the Landsat data from 1972 to the present day. This project uses a one-of-a-kind dataset primarily of Landsat satellite imagery from the year 2015. Remote sensing is critical to achieving a global perspective as well as objective and unbiased information.View how croplands are distributed in each of the countries and download data through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.The GFSAD30 Project Team’s goal is to map global croplands and their attributes routinely, rapidly, consistently and accurately year after year. The project is a collaborative effort among the USGS, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, University of New Hampshire, California State University Monterey Bay, University of Wisconsin, Northern Arizona University, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Systems Research Institute of Indonesia and Google. The project is funded by NASA’s Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments Program, with supplemental funding from the USGS.
APTN National NewsFirst Nation protestors hope lines they draw in the sand today will be enough to stop the burgeoning industry in its tracks.But industry and government officials say they want First Nations to be part of the potential resource bonanza.This has put First Nations leaders in a trick situation.APTN’s Ossie Michelin has this closer look at the fracking fight in New Brunswick.
WILMINGTON, MA — Below are recent articles about Wilmington — published online between June 30, 2019 to July 7, 2019 — that residents should consider reading:Wilmington Town CrierShine raises money for deceased Vietnam veteran’s grave by Heather BurnsPublic Buildings update by Lizzie McDermottWilmington Town Crier sports stories can be read HERE.Wilmington AdvocateNoneWilmington PatchWilmington Agrees To Mediation On Proposed Detox Facility by Dave CopelandLowell SunWilmington police arrest 2, seize 29 grams of fentanyl by Aaron CurtisLike Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email firstname.lastname@example.org. Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedWILMINGTON AROUND THE WEB: The Best Stories From Wilmington’s NewspapersIn “Community”WILMINGTON AROUND THE WEB: The Best Stories From Wilmington’s NewspapersIn “Community”WILMINGTON AROUND THE WEB: The Best Stories From Wilmington’s NewspapersIn “Community”
More From Roadshow Electric Cars Tesla Model 3 barrels through the snow in Track Mode 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous 3 Tesla The other update is Sentry Mode, which is intended to provide a little more security when a Tesla is parked. When the car is set to Sentry Mode, it will display a warning on the car’s infotainment system if a “minimal threat” is detected. For a more severe security issue, such as someone breaking a window, Sentry Mode will sound the car’s alarm and begin playing music through the audio system at full volume, as well as alerting the car’s owner via the Tesla smartphone app. (Tesla doesn’t specify what music will be played, but hopefully it’s something loud and attention-getting, rather than, say, soothing classical.)In addition, when Sentry Mode is triggered, the car will retain recorded footage from its built-in cameras for the 10-minute period prior to the alarm activation. The footage can be downloaded onto a USB stick, presumably for sharing with your insurance agency or local law enforcement.It’s worth noting that Sentry Mode is not automatically activated. Owners must choose the option every time they park the car and want to use it. The software update is rolling out to Model 3 sedans today, and will soon become available on Model S and Model X vehicles built after August 2017.There’s one final safety and security upgrade that Tesla announced today. The car’s built-in dashcam function will now also record video from the car’s side-mounted cameras, in addition to the forward-facing camera. That could provide even more evidence for an insurance claim after a car accident, for instance. 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value Tags Comments 50 Photos Tesla is rolling out new software features designed to help drivers of its electric cars keep their dogs safe, as well as their vehicles. CEO Elon Musk had hinted at the arrival of the Dog Mode and Sentry Mode functions earlier this week, and now both offerings are official.Keep your furry friends cool and happy while you run into the store. Tesla Dog Mode is designed for owners who might want to leave their furry companion inside a car — while running an errand, for instance — without risking the dangers of overheating cars. To use the feature, drivers pull up the car’s climate control options, select Keep Climate On and choose the Dog setting, then set a temperature preset. The Tesla will then keep the car’s cabin at a safe temperature while showing a message on the infotainment system so that passersby don’t worry about Fido’s health.Running the climate control while the car is parked will of course use some battery charge, so Tesla says that owners will receive an alert on their mobile app if the car’s battery drops to 20 percent charge while using Dog Mode. Tesla also notes that drivers should check if there are any local laws prohibiting leaving a dog in the car before using the function. Dog Mode builds on Tesla’s existing Cabin Overheat Protection function, which can activate the climate control to prevent the inside of the car getting dangerously hot to keep animals or children safe. 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better Tesla Share your voice
Indian stock markets ended trading on Monday with gains, as better-than-expected fourth quarter earnings and the passage last Friday of a landmark economic legislation lifted sentiments. The S&P BSE Sensex gained 460 points, or 1.82 percent, to close at 25,687 while the NSE Nifty ended the day at 7,866, up 132 points, or 1.71 percent.The Sensex rally was led by Bajaj Auto, followed by Axis Bank, ICICI Bank and HDFC. Stocks that lost included Dr Reddy’s Labs, Hindustan Unilever and Tata Steel.The biggest gainer among BSE500 companies was Muthoot Finance. Shares of cigarette maker ITC gained on the company resuming production. Godfrey Phillips also ended in the green. On the Nifty, the biggest gainer was Bosch, followed by Zee Ltd. and Bajaj Auto.The Indian rupee however, closed with a loss of 4 paise at 66.59 to the U.S. dollar after opening at 66.51. Foreign institutional investors were net buyers of Indian equities worth Rs. 224 crore, according to provisional data provided by the National Stock Exchange (NSE).Bankruptcy BillThe Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2015 passed by the Lower House (Lok Sabha) last week is being seen as a landmark legislation that provides for time-bound processes for resolving insolvency-related disputes of companies and individuals. “These processes will be completed within 180 days. If insolvency cannot be resolved, the assets of the borrowers may be sold to repay creditors. The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) will adjudicate insolvency resolution for companies. The Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) will adjudicate insolvency resolution for individuals,” PRS Legislative Research, a not-for-profit organisation that provides updates on Indian legislations, said in an update.The Bill now needs to be passed by the Upper House (Rajya Sabha).Markets would now be awaiting the passage of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill, which has already been cleared by the Lok Sabha. The legislation is aimed at creating an unified indirect tax architecture across the country.
Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Google is expected to release its Extensions Gallery for general users of the new Chrome browser this week, possibly at the Add-On Conference on browser extensions to be held on December 11, 2009. Google is a platinum sponsor of the conference. An extensions site was unveiled a couple of weeks ago, but only for the use of developers. Chrome 4.0 beta web browser launched The Google Extensions Gallery is expected to be similar to the Themes Gallery, with a list of available extensions and a download button for each. The gallery will be the first official release for end users. Extensions and support for them will only be available initially for Windows, but they are also expected to be available in future for the coming Mac and Linux versions.Extensions expected to be available include SEO (search engine optimization) extensions to assist in Internet marketing, Shareaholic, a social media extension, Gmail compose, which lets you quickly compose an email through your gmail account, and Quicksearch, which speeds up searches using your favorite search engine. Google Tasks for Chrome will give you complete control of your Google Task List and synchronize it with your Gmail Task List, and for those websites that only work correctly in Internet Explorer, a Chrome IE extension is expected to be available to let you open a tab and view the site in IE without leaving Chrome.Trials of the developer versions of the extensions have shown they can be added or removed easily without the need to restart the Chrome browser. Since Chrome has been developed in open-source, anyone can develop extensions for it and upload them via the Google Chrome Extension Developer Dashboard.The availability of useful extensions for the Chrome browser will mean it is more customizable and possibly a stronger rival to Mozilla Firefox. Firefox can be easily customized by its add-ons, and this is one of the major reasons it has become so popular. Google Chrome is a free browser that runs web pages extremely fast, and a raft of useful extensions may help it to reach Google’s stated of of cornering at least 10% of the browser market share.© 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Google Chrome extensions to be officially released (2009, December 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-12-google-chrome-extensions.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: USPTO Patent 1USPTO Patent 2via PatentlyApple © 2012 Phys.org Explore further Apple granted smartphone touchscreen patent (Phys.org)—The US Patent and Trademark Office has published thirty-six patents granted for Apple. Patently Apple has highlighted two of those patents. One has to do with multi-touch displays. The multi-touch patent relates to sensor panels using capacitive sensors to detect and localize touch events. The other patent has to do with new ways to shape glass for iDevices, e.g., the iPhone and iPad. One of the advantages of Apple’s proposed process on glass is that it would not involve dangerous chemicals and gasses. First, in presenting the Touch Sensor Back Plane Ground Connection, which was filed by Thayne Miller in July last year, the patent noted that, if touch sensors are to correctly identify the presence and location of a touch event, then the back plane of the touch sensor panel needs to be reliably grounded. If the back plane isn’t, then sensors may behave sporadically and misrepresent touch events or fail.”Touch sensors may misrepresent the touch event. These misrepresentations can include, but are not limited to, errors in the location of a touch event or the detection of a phantom touch in the absence of an actual touch event. In extreme cases, the touch sensors may fail altogether.” The patent said the various embodiments in the disclosure are designed to provide a reliable ground connection even in the presence of failure conditions. Providing a reliable ground connection for the back plane may be useful in providing a uniform electrical reference point to measure changes in voltage and capacitance from a touch event. The patent signals Apple’s ongoing development of multi-touch for its iDevices.The “Glass” patent, titled “Glass alignment for high temperature processes,” was filed in 2009. The patent said that “Apparatus, systems and methods for alignment of a glass member for high temperature processing are disclosed. The high temperature processing can, for example, pertain to a slumping process to mold glass into a predetermined shape (e.g., a three-dimensional shape). In one embodiment, a glass slumping system can have a mold and an alignment system that support a glass member to be slumped relative to the mold. The alignment system may have a plurality of alignment members being configured to move away from the glass member as the temperature increases during the slumping process to allow the glass member to bend around the mold without interference.”This second patent appears to have drawn the most interest from Apple watchers, casting bets that it may signal introductions of bendable phones and other such devices. The new patent details a way to use heat to achieve a particular shape. The patent suggests ways to shape glass without having to undergo a long process and involving risky chemicals. The patent’s suggested embodiments of the glass invention are discussed: “The apparatus, systems and methods for alignment of a glass member for high temperature processing are suitable for glass covers assembled in small form factor electronic devices, such as handheld electronic devices,” it said, but also listed more embodiments. “The apparatus, systems and methods can also be used for glass covers or displays for other relatively larger form factor electronic devices (e.g., portable computers, tablet computers, displays, monitors, televisions, etc.).” Citation: Apple wins multi-touch and glass process patents (2012, December 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-12-apple-multi-touch-glass-patents.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Fine-tuning organic circuits: Monolayer terminal groups and molecular junctions (2015, April 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-fine-tuning-circuits-monolayer-terminal-groups.html Journal information: Journal of the American Chemical Society One way to quantitatively compare one monolayer to another is to measure electron tunneling between the electrode and the junction point at the terminal end of the monolayer. Lead author, Kung-Ching Liao of George M. Whitesides’s group at Harvard University investigated whether decreasing the strength of the interaction between the monolayer’s terminal group and the Ga2O3 interface would decrease the tunneling current density of the monolayer. Their work was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.Prior studies by Whitesides’s group looked at how electron tunneling changes when the atom that is coordinated to the metal electrode (the anchor) is changed, or when the organic components (the backbone) between the anchor and the terminal group are changed. Their prior research revealed that increasing the strength of the terminal group interaction with Ga2O3 did not increase tunneling current density; however, decreasing the interaction between the terminal group and Ga2O3 junction seemed to decrease it. In this study, Liao et al. sought to investigate the mechanism for this decrease in tunneling current density.To understand this mechanism, they needed to make a direct comparison between two similar monolayers and their terminal groups. They chose to compare a monolayer comprised of C-H bonds with a monolayer that has some or all C-H bonds replaced with C-F bonds. The C-F bond is less polarizable than the C-H bond and has a longer bond length than C-H. Additionally, changing the hydrogens on an aliphatic carbon chain to fluorine decreases the energy of the HOMO and, in a monolayer, disrupts van der Waals interactions between alkyl chains. By investigating the effects of changing these factors, Liao et al. were able to discern the primary cause for the change in electron tunneling density.They found that changing the backbone from (CH2)n to (CF2)n had a small, but noticeable effect on the tunneling density. This effect was not enough to account for the differences noted in prior experiments. However, when they changed the terminal group from CH3 to CF3, they found that this factor alone, accounted for the change in electron tunneling density. Whether the backbone was an n-alkyl chain or para-substituted omega-tolyl-alkanoates or oligophenyl carboxylates, the rate of charge transport across the CF3 terminal group and Ga2O3 from the EGaIn tip differed from the CH3 equivalent by a factor of 25 to 30. This discovery allows for additional fine-tuning of an organic circuit by selecting a particular backbone and anchor with desirable electronic properties. It also sheds light on the importance of the terminal group junction interaction. (Phys.org)—Self-assembled monolayers are organic molecules that spontaneously coordinate to a metal surface. If this metal surface is an electrode, then a current can pass through the organic monolayer and interact with a second electrode on the terminal side of the molecule. This current can be controlled by changing the characteristics of the organic molecule, such as making it longer or adding polar substituents or other functional groups. This tailoring of organic circuits is part of a bigger project of creating organic-based electronics. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org Study demonstrates an electronic switch based on stereoisomerism Explore further More information: “Fluorination and tunneling across molecular junctions” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137 (11), pp 3852–3858. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b00137AbstractThis paper describes the influence of the substitution of fluorine for hydrogen on the rate of charge transport by hole tunneling through junctions of the form AgTSO2C(CH2)n(CF2)mT//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where T is methyl (CH3) or trifluoromethyl (CF3). Alkanoate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) having perfluorinated groups (RF) show current densities that are lower (by factors of 20–30) than those of the homologous hydrocarbons (RH), while the attenuation factors of the simplified Simmons equation for methylene (β = (1.05 ± 0.02)nCH2–1) and difluoromethylene (β = (1.15 ± 0.02)nCF2–1) are similar (although the value for (CF2)n is statistically significantly larger). A comparative study focusing on the terminal fluorine substituents in SAMs of ω-tolyl- and -phenyl-alkanoates suggests that the C–F//Ga2O3 interface is responsible for the lower tunneling currents for CF3. The decrease in the rate of charge transport in SAMs with RF groups (relative to homologous RH groups) is plausibly due to an increase in the height of the tunneling barrier at the T//Ga2O3 interface, and/or to weak van der Waals interactions at that interface.
Kolkata: A private hospital at Panchasayar was allegedly ransacked by the family members of an 83-year-old patient who died due to cardiac arrest on Monday morning. Later, police intervened and detained three relatives of the patient The hospital authority lodged a complaint at Panchasayar Police Station.According to hospital authorities, Radharani Debnath was admitted to the hospital on Sunday evening. Sources informed that Debnath was a chronic cardiac patient. Debnath was brought to the emergency with cardiac issues and septicemia. As no bed at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) was available, she was kept under observation in the emergency ward. In the wee hours of Monday, Debnath suffered a cardiac arrest. She was immediately put on ventilation. Approximately, after three hours she suffered another cardiac arrest and passed away. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”The patient suffered two cardiac arrests. The first was at 5.30 am after which we were able to resuscitate her but she needed ventilator support and a temporary pace-maker. We lost her after the second attack around 8.30 am. We tried to inform the family after the first attack but the phone number given to us was found switched off. We were able to reach them around 8.30 am after several attempts and told them to reach the hospital as soon as possible,” said Sudipta Mitra, Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the hospital. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAfter getting the call from hospital, Debnath’s family members reached the hospital and found that she was no more. Immediately, they allegedly started hurling expletives at duty doctors and nurses. Later, some of them entered the emergency ward and started ransacking while other patients being admitted. Several computers, chairs and tables got damaged. “Around 25 men entered the emergency ward and started throwing the computers. They were trying to beat us and the on-duty nurses despite several critical patients being treated at that time. We somehow managed to get out of there and took shelter in another room,” said an on-duty doctor of the hospital. Panchasayar Police Station was immediately informed. Upon receiving the information, police reached the hospital and were able to disperse the mob. Later, three persons were detained. The relatives of the patient denied the charges made against them. According to Debnath’s daughter, Indrani Roy Chowdhury, hospital authorities did not inform them about the critical situation of her mother. “We were not informed about her health condition. She also alleged that the hospital staff had attacked and beat up her family members,” said Indrani. But the hospital authorities denied such allegations made by Indrani.